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APA 7th Citation Guide > Reproduce or Paraphrase a Text

Reproducing an excerpt of text in English or in French

If the reproduced text comprises less than 40 words, enclose it in quotation marks (APA 7th, 2020, p. 271). Ex.:

"Rethinking the relationships humans have with each other and with nature is an aspiration that a growing number of men and women share" (Ministère du développement durable, environnement et lutte contre les changements climatiques [MDDELCC], 2018).
If the quoted sentence ends there, place the period after (Author, Year, Page or paragraph) and not between the quotation marks.

If the sentence continues, do not place a period after (Author, Year). Ex.:

... "a development mode that all too often damages the environment and relegates the majority of humanity to poverty" (MDDELCC, 2018) is not advisable ...

If the reproduced excerpt comprises 40 words or more, display it in a freestanding block of text without quotation marks, with an additional indent of 1/2 inch (APA 7th, 2020, pp. 272-273). Place the period at the end of the excerpt and mention the source (Author, Year, Page or paragraph). Ex.:

Other authors refuted this hypothesis:
           Text comprising 40 words or more. (Author, Year, p.xx or para. x or chap. x)       or
Author (Year) described how...:
           Text comprising 40 words or more. (p. xx)


Generally, in sciences and engineering, it is best to reformulate in your own words the meaning of the information cited (paraphrase it) than literally reproduce it and enclose it in quotes. Paraphrasing shows how well you understood the information cited.

Paraphrase the information in the language of the document you are writing (French or English).

For both paraphrasing or literally reproducing a text, acknowledge (cite) the original source in the text and include its reference in the reference list.

Translating a text

A translated text is always a paraphrase and not a word-for-word translation. In this case, acknowledge the original source and do not enclose the translated text in quotes:

In-text citations:
...Author (Year) translated text...
...translated text (Author, Year)...

Author (Year). Title in original language [Translation of the title]...