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APA 7th Citation Guide > Cite Sources in Text

In-text Citations

Mention the name(s) of the author(s) and the publication year for in-text citations.

The way of citing is different for the first in-text citation of a document whose author is an organization with official abbreviation and for the following mentions of the same document - see the example at the right.

To cite a specific part of a document with page numbers, mention the page(s), the table, or the figure number after the year. For documents with no page numbers, mention the paragraph, the title of the section, the table, the figure, etc. (APA 7th, 2020, p. 264).

Examples:

Author (Year, p. 15) or (Author, Year, pp. 15-17)
Author (Year, para. 2) or (Author, Year, paras. 3-5)
Author (Year, Chapter 5) or (Author, Year, Chapter 5)
Author (Year, Table 2) or (Author, Year, Table 2)
Author (Year, Figure 3) or (Author, Year, Figure 3)

 

Ex. 1: There were 416.2 million trips in 2016 (Société de transport de Montréal [STM], 2017).
or
According to the STM (2017), there were 416.2 million trips in 2016.

Ex. 2: Tremblay et al. (2019) have shown that ...
or
Tests have shown that ... (Tremblay et al., 2019).

Ex. 3: Tremblay and Martin (2020) have demonstrated that ...
or
It was demonstrated that ... (Tremblay & Martin, 2020).

NOTE: To format in-text citations in Word with EndNote:

  • For Author (Year):
    Edit & Manage Citation(s) → Formatting: Display as Author (Year)
  • For (Author, Year):
    Edit & Manage Citation(s) → Formatting: Default

Examples of In-text Citations

No identified author

One author

Two authors

Three or more authors

First authors with the same last name and different initials

Organization with official abbreviation

Organization without official abbreviation

Multiple documents by different authors cited to support the same idea

Multiple documents published in different years by the same authors in the same order

Multiple documents by the same authors in the same order, published in the same year

Multiple documents published in the same year by three or more common first authors in the same order