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IEEE Citation Guide > Cite Sources in Text

Complete reference guide about IEEE-style citations and bibliographies

In-Text Citations

For in-text citations, the IEEE style uses a number in brackets, with a space before the first bracket (ex.: [3]).

References should be numbered in order of appearance in the text. Each reference should have its own number, since it is not allowed to use a single number to designate a group of references. Each reference number should be on the same line as the text and placed before any punctuation mark.

If a document has been cited and assigned a number, the same number should be used in all subsequent citations of the same document.

Examples of IEEE In-Text Citations

Do not write "… in the reference [3]…"—use only the reference number: … [3]... or … [3]-[6]…

The page, the chapter, the section, the paragraph, the annex, etc. where the information was found can also be mentioned in the in-text citation. Ex.: [2, pp. 15-16] [2, Appendix 3] [2, Ch. 5]

One, two or three authors

Four or more authors

Multiple citations supporting the same idea

In-text citation of a figure