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IEEE Citation Guide > Reproduce or Paraphrase a Text

Complete reference guide about IEEE-style citations and bibliographies

Reproducing an Excerpt of Text in English or in French

The IEEE style urges users to always paraphrase a text instead of reproducing it literally. 

However, if you still want to reproduce an excerpt of text, enclose it in quotation marks, place the citation in square brackets at the end of the text and include the reference of the source in the bibliography.


In the text: ..."Excerpt from the original text" [1] ...

In the bibliography: [1] ...


Generally, in sciences and engineering, it is always better to reformulate in your own words the meaning of the information cited (paraphrase it) than literally reproduce it and enclose it in quotes. Paraphrasing shows how well you understood the information cited.

Paraphrase the information in the language of the document you are writing (French or English).

For both paraphrasing or literally reproducing a text, acknowledge (cite) the original source in the text and include its reference in the reference list.